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Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

 

You need to remember the name of the oral diseases before you start about sign, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment part. Few students cannot name few diseases during viva voce or in written part; and definitely you don’t want to be part of that group. Diseases of the oral cavity have been divided in the following headings; and we suggest that you at least remember the names of all of them.

 

1. Vesiculobullous diseases

Viral diseases

  1. Herpes simplex infections
  2. Varicella zoster infection
  3. Hand foot and mouth disease
  4. Herpangina
  5. Measles (Rubeola)

Immunologic diseases

  1. Pemphigus vulgaris
  2. Mucous membrane pemphigoid
  3. Bullous pemphigoid
  4. Dermatitis herpetiformis
  5. Linear immunologic A disease

Hereditary diseases

  1. Epidermolysis bullosa

 

2. Ulcerative conditions

Reactive lesions

  1. Traumatic ulcerations

Bacterial lesions

  1. Syphilis
  2. Gonorrhoea
  3. Tuberculosis
  4. Leprosy
  5. Actinomycosis
  6. Noma

Fungal infections

  1. Deep fungal infections
  2. Subcutaneous fungal infections:
  3. Spirotrichosis
  4. Opportunistic fungal infections:
  5. Phycomycosis (Mucormycotic)
  6. Aspergillosis

Immunologic diseases

  1. Aphthous ulcers
  2. Behcet’s syndrome
  3. Reiter’s syndrome
  4. Erythema multiforme
  5. Drug reactions
  6. Contact allergies
  7. Wegener’s granulomatosis
  8. Midline granuloma
  9. Chronic granulomatous
  10. Cyclic neutropenia

Neoplasm

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma
  2. Carcinoma of maxillary sinus

3. White lesions

Hereditary conditions

  1. Leukoedema
  2. White sponge nevus
  3. Hereditary benign intraepithelial Dyskeratosis
  4. Follicular keratosis

Reactive lesions

  1. Focal hyperkeratosis (frictional hyperkeratosis)
  2. White lesions associated with smokeless tobacco
  3. Nicotine stomatitis
  4. Hairy leukoplakia
  5. Hairy toungue
  6. Dentifrice associated slough

Preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions

  1. Actinic cheilitis
  2. Idiopathic Leukoplakia

Other while lesions

  1. Geographic tongue
  2. Lupus erythematosus
  3. Lichen planus

Nonepithelial other white-yellow lesions

  1. Candidiasis
  2. Mucosal burns
  3. Submucous fibrosis
  4. Fordyce’s granules
  5. Ectopic lymphoid tissues
  6. Gingival cysts
  7. Parulis
  8. Lipoma

4. Red-blue lesions

Intravascular lesions

Congenital vascular anomalies

  1. Congenital haemangiomas and congenital vascular malformation
  2. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
  3. Encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis (Sturge-Weber Syndrome)

Reactive lesions

  1. Pyogenic granuloma
  2. Peripheral giant cell granuloma
  3. Varix & other acquired vascular malformations
  4. Scarlet fever
  5. Neoplasm
  6. Erythroplakia
  7. Kaposi’s sarcoma

Metabolic endocrine conditions

  1. Vitamin B deficiency
  2. Pernicious anaemia
  3. Burning mouth syndrome
  4. Iron deficiency anaemia

Immunologic Abnormalities

  1. Drug reactions & contact allergies
  2. Plasma cell gingivitis

Extravascular lesions

  1. Petechiae
  2. Ecchymoses

5. Pigmented lesions

Melanocytic lesions

  1. Physiologic (Ethnic) pigmentation
  2. Oral melanotic macule
  3. Smoking associated melanosis
  4. Café-au-Lait macules
  5. Pigmented neuroectodermal tumor of infancy
  6. Nevomelanocytic nevus
  7. Melanoma

Nonmelanocytic lesions

  1. Amalgam tattoo (Focal argyrosis)
  2. Heavy metal pigmentations
  3. Drug induced pigmentations

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6. Verrucal-papillary lesions

Reactive or Infectious lesions

  1. Squamous papilloma/Oral warts
  2. Papillary hyperplasia
  3. Condyloma latum
  4. Condyloma acuminatum
  5. Focal epithelial hyperplasia

Neoplasm

  1. Keratoacanthoma
  2. Verrucous Carcinoma

Idiopathic lesions

  1. Pyostomatitis vegetans
  2. Verruciform xanthoma

7. Connective tissue lesions

Fibrous lesions

Reactive hyperplasia

  1. Peripheral fibroma
  2. Generalised gingival hyperplasia
  3. Focal fibrous hyperplasia
  4. Denture induced fibrous hyperplasia

Neoplasm

  1. Solitary fibrous tumor
  2. Myxoma
  3. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma
  4. Giant cell angiofibroma
  5. Nodular fasciitis
  6. Myofibroblastic tumers
  7. Fibromatosis
  8. Fibrosarcoma

Fibrohistiocytic tumors

  1. Benign fibrous histiocytoma
  2. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma

Vascular lesions

Reactive lesions and congenital lesions

  1. Lymphangioma

Neoplasm

  1. Hemangiopericytoma
  2. Angiosarcoma

Neural lesions

Reactive lesions

  1. Traumatic neuroma

Neoplasm

  1. Granular cell tumor
  2. Schwanomma
  3. Neurofibroma
  4. Mucosal neuromas of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, Type III
  5. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma
  6. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tomor
  7. Olfactory neuroblastoma

Muscle Lesions  

  1. Reactive Lesions  
  2. Myositis Ossificans  
  3. Neoplasms  
  4. Leiomyoma and Leiomyosarcoma  
  5. Rhabdomyoma and Rhabdomyosarcoma  

Fat Lesions  

  1. Lipoma  
  2. Liposarcoma  

8. Salivary Gland Diseases 

Reactive Lesions  

  1. Mucus Extravasation Phenomenon  
  2. Mucus Retention Cyst  
  3. Maxillary Sinus Retention Cyst/Pseudocyst  
  4. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia  
  5. Adenomatoid Hyperplasia  

Infectious Sialadenitis  

  1. Mumps  
  2. Cytomegaloviral Sialadenitis  
  3. Bacterial Sialadenitis  
  4. Sarcoidosis  
  5. Metabolic Conditions  
  6. Sjogren’s Syndrome  
  7. Salivary Lymphoepithelial Lesion  

Benign Neoplasms  

  1. Mixed Tumor (Pleomorphic Adenoma)  
  2. Monomorphic Adenomas  
  3. Ductal Papillomas  

Malignant Neoplasms  

  1. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma  
  2. Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma  
  3. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma  
  4. Clear Cell Carcinoma  
  5. Acinic Cell Carcinoma  
  6. Adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified  

Rare Tumors  

  1. Carcinoma EX-Mixed Tumor/ Malignant Mixed Tumor/Metastasizing Mixed Tumor  
  2. Epimyoepithelial Carcinoma  
  3. Salivary Duct Carcinoma  
  4. Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma  
  5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

9. Lymphoid Lesions

Reactive Lesions  

  1. Lymphoid Hyperplasia  
  2. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia  

Developmental Lesions  

  1. Lymphoepithelial Cyst  

Neoplasms  

  1. Lymphoma  
  2. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma  
  3. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma  
  4. Multiple Myeloma/Plasmacytoma  
  5. Leukemias  
  6. Granulocytic Sarcoma  

10. Cysts of the Jaws and Neck 

Odontogenic Cysts  

  1. Periapical (Radicular) Cyst  
  2. Lateral Periodontal Cyst  
  3. Gingival Cyst of the Newborn  
  4. Dentigerous Cyst  
  5. Eruption Cyst  
  6. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst  
  7. Odontogenic Keratocyst  
  8. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst  

Nonodontogenic Cysts  

  1. Globulomaxillary Lesion  
  2. Nasolabial Cyst  
  3. Median Mandibular Cyst  
  4. Nasopalatine Canal Cyst  

Pseudocysts  

  1. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst  
  2. Traumatic (Simple) Bone Cyst  
  3. Static Bone Cyst (Stafne’s Bone Defect)  
  4. Focal Osteoporotic Bone Marrow Defect  
  5. Soft Tissue Cysts of the Neck  
  6. Branchial Cyst/ Cervical Lymphoepithelial Cyst  

 

11. Odontogenic Tumors

Epithelial Tumors  

  1. Ameloblastoma
  2. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor
  3. Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor
  4. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor
  5. Clear Cell Odontogenic Tumor(Carcinoma)

Mesenchymal Tumors  

  1. Odontogenic Myxoma
  2. Central Odontogenic Fibroma
  3. Cementifying Fibroma  
  4. Cementoblastoma
  5. Periapical Cementoosseous Dysplasia  

Mixed (Epithelial and Mesenchymal) Tumors  

  1. Ameloblastic Fibroma and Ameloblastic Fibro-odontoma
  2. Odontoma

12. Benign Nonodontogenic Tumors

  1. Ossifying Fibroma
  2. Fibrous Dysplasia
  3. Cemento-osseous Dysplasia  
  4. Osteoblastoma/Osteoid Osteoma
  5. Osteoma
  6. Desmoplastic Fibroma
  7. Chondroma
  8. Central Giant Cell Granuloma
  9. Giant Cell Tumor
  10. Hemangioma of Bone
  11. Langerhans Cell Disease
  12. Tori and Exostoses
    1. Torus Palatinus
    2. Torus Mandibularis
    3. Exostoses   
  13. Coronoid Hyperplasia

13. Inflammatory Jaw Lesions

Pulpitis  

  1. Etiology
  2. Clinical and Histopathologic Features
  3. Treatment and Prognosis

Periapical Abscess  

  1. Etiology
  2. Clinical Features
  3. Histopathology
  4. Treatment and Prognosis

Acute Osteomyelitis  

  1. Etiology
  2. Clinical Features
  3. Histopathology
  4. Treatment

Chronic Osteomyelitis (Chronic Osteitis)

  1. Etiology
  2. Clinical Features
  3. Histopathology
  4. Treatment
  5. Chronic Osteomyelitis with Proliferative Periostitis (Garré’s Osteomyelitis)
  6. Diffuse Sclerosing Osteomyelitis
  7. Focal Sclerosing Osteitis

14. Malignancies of the Jaws

Osteosarcoma  

Parosteal Osteosarcoma  

Periosteal Osteosarcoma  

Chondrosarcoma  

  1. Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma

Ewing’s Sarcoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

Burkitt’s Lymphoma  

Plasma Cell Neoplasms  

  1. Multiple Myeloma
  2. Solitary Plasmacytoma of Bone

Metastatic Carcinoma  

 

15. Metabolic and Genetic Diseases

Metabolic Conditions  

  1. Paget’s Disease
  2. Hyperparathyroidism
  3. Hyperthyroidism
  4. Hypothyroidism
  5. Hypophosphatasia
  6. Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis
  7. Phantom Bone Disease
  8. Acromegaly

Genetic Abnormalities  

  1. Cherubism
  2. Osteopetrosis
  3. Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  4. Cleidocranial Dysplasia
  5. Crouzon’s Syndrome (Craniofacial Dysostosis)
  6. Treacher Collins Syndrome (Mandibular 
  7. Dysostosis)
  8. Pierre Robin Syndrome
  9. Marfan’s Syndrome
  10. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  11. Down Syndrome (Trisomy )
  12. Hemifacial Atrophy
  13. Hemifacial Hypertrophy
  14. Clefts of the Lip and Palate
  15. Fragile X Syndrome

16. Abnormalities of Teeth

Alterations in Size  

  1. Microdontia
  2. Macrodontia

Alterations in Shape  

  1. Gemination
  2. Fusion
  3. Concrescence
  4. Dilaceration
  5. Dens Invaginatus
  6. Dens Evaginatus
  7. Taurodontism
  8. Supernumerary Roots
  9. Enamel Pearls
  10. Attrition Abrasion Erosion

Alterations in Number  

  1. Anodontia
  2. Impaction
  3. Supernumerary Teeth

Defects of Enamel  

  1. Environmental Defects of Enamel
  2. Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Defects of Dentin  

  1. DentinogenesisImperfecta  
  2. Dentin Dysplasia
  3. Defects of Enamel and Dentin
  4. Regional Odontodysplasia

Abnormalities of Dental Pulp  

  1. Pulp Calcification
  2. Internal Resorption
  3. External Resorption

Alterations in Color  

  1. Exogenous Stains
  2. Endogenous Stains

 

17. Common Skin Lesions of the Head and Neck

 

Macules and Patches

  1. Vitiligo
  2. Ephelides (Freckles)
  3. Café-au-Lait Macules
  4. Solar Lentigo (Liver Spot)
  5. Melasma (Mask of Pregnancy)
  6. Erysipelas
  7. Telangiectasia
  8. Petechiae Purpura and Ecchymoses

Papules and Plaques

  1. Acrochordon (Skin Tag)
  2. Fibrous Papule
  3. Angiofibroma (Adenoma Sebaceum)
  4. Neurofibroma
  5. Syringoma
  6. Molluscum Contagiosum
  7. Sebaceous Hyperplasia
  8. Xanthelasma
  9. Milia
  10. Solar (Senile) Comedones(Favre-Racouchot Syndrome)
  11. Nevomelanocytic Nevi (Moles)
  12. Cutaneous Melanoma
  13. Seborrheic Keratosis
  14. Acne
  15. Perioral Dermatitis
  16. Folliculitis
  17. Furuncle
  18. Miliaria
  19. Granuloma Faciale
  20. Hemangioma
  21. Morbilliform Drug Eruptions
  22. Lichen Planus
  23. Varix

Nodules

  1. Keratoacanthoma
  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma
  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Wheals

  1. Urticaria (Hives)
  2. Angioedema

Papulosquamous Dermatoses

  1. Actinic Keratoses (Solar
  2. Keratoses)
  3. Seborrheic Dermatitis
  4. Psoriasis
  5. Atopic Dermatitis
  6. Keratosis Pilaris
  7. Pityriasis Rosea
  8. Warts (Verruca Vulgaris and Flatwarts)  

  Vesicles/Bullae /Pustules

  1. Herpes Simplex Infection
  2. Varicella-Zoster Infection
  3. Contact Dermatitis
  4. lmpetigo
  5. Rosacea
  6. ErythemaMultiforme
  7. Pemphigus Vulgaris

Erosions / Fissures / Ulcers / Scars

  1. Perleche
  2. Burns
  3. Keloid

Connective Tissue Diseases  

  1. Dermatomyositis
  2. Lupus Erythematosus
  3. Scleroderma

 

18. Advanced Diagnostic Methods in Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology    

Molecular Methods in Diagnostic Pathology

  1. Principles of Molecular Pathology
  2. DNA-Sequencing Methods
  3. Hybridization Methods
  4. Other Advanced Technologies

Immunohistochemical Methods in Diagnostic Pathology

  1. Fundamentals of Immunohistochemistry
  2. Principles and Technical Advances
  3. Immuno-histochemical Applications
  4. Diagnostically Challenging Oral Malignant
  5. Neoplasms
  6. Molecular Marker Descriptions  

Direct Immunofluorescence in Diagnostic Pathology

  1. Fundamentals
  2. Immunofluorescence Applications  

  

We will guide you one topic to another topic in a systematic manner to enable you to have command over the subject and answer confidently in written as well as viva voce in practical examination through our “Platinum Course“.

 

 

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Ref: Oral Pathology Clinical Pathologic Correlations Regezi Sciubba Jordan 4th Ed 

 

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